Stephen Hawking has netted a $3 million prize from a Russian billionaire who dropped out of a physics PhD to make money from social media. A similar pot is to be shared by seven scientists at CERN.
The 2012 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to Britain's Sir John Gurdon and Shinya Yamanaka of Japan for their discovery that mature, specialised cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent stem cells.
This year's Nobel Prize in Physics 2011 has been awarded to Saul Perlmutter, Brian P Schmidt and Adam G Riess for revealing the final fate of the universe.
A British professor at Harvard University has won the $250,000 Turing Award for his work in machine learning and artificial intelligence.