Scientists transform primitive artificial cell into complex biological materials

It is a big dream in science: To start from scratch with simple artificial microscopic building blocks and end up with something much more complex: living systemts, novel computers or every-day materials.

How did Earth's primitive chemistry get kick-started?

How did life on Earth get started? Three new papers co-authored by Mike Russell, a research scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., strengthen the case that Earth's first life began at alkaline hydrothermal vents at the bottom of oceans.