Professor Michael Mann, the US scientist accused of massaging climate change figures has been cleared by his university.
After a four-month investigation, Penn State University has concluded that he had not "engaged in, directly or indirectly, any actions that seriously deviated from accepted practices within the academic community for proposing, conducting or reporting research or other scholarly activities."
The charges were made after a series of email exchanges between Dr Mann and other scientists at the University of East Anglia were leaked.
They contained references that were suspected to refer to falsification of data to support the view that man-made climate change was taking place - the most notable being the use of the word 'trick'.
The report says that the way Mann used and shared source codes was perfectly normal. If it hadn't been, it says, “it would have been impossible for him to receive so many awards and recognitions, which typically involve intense scrutiny from scientists who may or may not agree with his scientific conclusions.”
The Committee did, though describe his actions in sharing unpublished manuscripts with third parties without getting the authors' consent to be careless and inappropriate.
It's the second report from Penn to exonerate Dr Mann. An earlier probe cleared him in February of having suppressed and falsified data, destroyed emails and misusing confidential information.
“I’m aware, and many researchers now are keenly aware, of the depths to which the climate-change disinformation movement is willing to sink, to the point where they’re willing to criminally break into a university server and steal people’s personal e-mail messages,” Dr. Mann told the New York Times.
The university's full report is here.